Lincoln Memorial

Bibliographic Essay

The National Park Service’s website for the Lincoln Memorial National Memorial,, does not provide much information on the architecture and
history of the site. Midge Frazel’s Web Resources for Educators includes The
Lincoln Memorial Project ( This site
houses links to various Lincoln oriented documents, resources, and references to
the memorial’s art and architecture, including a virtual tour of the Lincoln
Memorial. There are many websites for those interested in the Athenian
Parthenon including: Tuft University’s The Perseus Digital Library
(; Williamette University’s Parthenon Home Page
( with an image archive
index, bibliography, and links; and Reed College’s The Parthenon, by David
Silverman (

Additionally, the bibliographic citations provide the sources for developing this module.

Bibliographic Citations

Federal Writers’ Project, Washington: City and Capital (United States Government Printing Office: Washington, D. C.) 1937.
Good discussion of the building, the Lincoln statue, and the decorations.

Goode, James M., The Outdoor Sculpture of Washington D.C.: A Comprehensive Historical Guide (Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington, D.C.) 1974.
Focuses on Daniel Chester French’s magnificent statue of Lincoln.

Moeller Jr., G. Martin AIA Guide to the Architecture of Washington, D. C., Fourth Edition (The Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore) 2006.
Discusses the controversies of the building and site selections.

Scott, Pamela and Lee, Antoinette J., Buildings of the District of Columbia (Oxford University Press: New York & Oxford) 1993.
Notes that with its various classical architectural aspects, the Lincoln Memorial was not derived from any specific ancient prototype. Good basic reference.

Thomas, Christopher A., The Lincoln Memorial & American Life (Princeton University Press: Princeton and Oxford) 2002.
An excellent study of the conception, building, and the meaning of the Lincoln Memorial. Discusses various classical options for the Lincoln Memorial: a colonnaded stoa, a columned classical enclosure around an altar, and the choice between a Greek rectangular temple-style (Parthenon) and a Roman circular-temple style (Pantheon).

Ziolkowski, John E., Classical Washington: A Guided Tour (National Endowment for the Humanities) 1987.
Good comparison with the Athenian Parthenon: the eastern orientation, the use of Doric columns on the outside and Ionic columns on the inside, and their respective employment of friezes, metopes, and patriotic themes.